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Bioluminescent species are also well represented including species in different colour spectrum and forms , like the glowing plankton that are possible to observe in some beaches.
There are many endemic insect species, most only found in certain parts of Portugal, while other species are more widespread like the stag beetle Lucanus cervus and the cicada.
The Macaronesian islands Azores and Madeira have many endemic species like birds, reptiles, bats, insects, snails and slugs that evolved independently from other regions of Portugal.
In Madeira, for example, it is possible to observe more than species of land gastropods. The Constitution grants the division or separation of powers among four bodies referred as "organs of Sovereignty": The President, who is elected to a five-year term, has an executive role: The Assembly of the Republic is a single chamber parliament composed of deputies elected for a four-year term.
The Courts are organized into several levels, among the judicial, administrative and fiscal branches.
A thirteen-member Constitutional Court oversees the constitutionality of the laws. The Head of State of Portugal is the President of the Republic , elected to a five-year term by direct, universal suffrage.
He or she has also supervision and reserve powers. Presidential powers include the appointment of the Prime Minister and the other members of the Government where the President takes into account the results of legislative elections ; dismissing the Prime Minister; dissolving the Assembly of the Republic to call early elections ; vetoing legislation which may be overridden by the Assembly ; and declaring a state of war or siege.
The President is advised on issues of importance by the Council of State , which is composed of six senior civilian officers, any former Presidents elected under the Constitution, five-members chosen by the Assembly, and five selected by the president.
The Government is both the organ of sovereignty that conducts the general politics of the country and the superior body of the public administration.
It has essentially Executive powers, but has also limited Legislative powers. The Government can legislate about its own organization, about areas covered by legislative authorizations conceded by the Assembly of the Republic and about the specific regulation of generalist laws issued by the Assembly.
Each government is required to define the broad outline of its policies in a programme, and present it to the Assembly for a mandatory period of debate.
The failure of the Assembly to reject the government programme by an absolute majority of deputies confirms the cabinet in office.
The Assembly of the Republic , in Lisbon is the national parliament of Portugal. It is the main Legislative body, although the Government also has limited legislative powers.
The Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral body composed of up to deputies. Elected by universal suffrage according to a system of closed party-list proportional representation , deputies serve four-year terms of office, unless the President dissolves the Assembly and calls for new elections.
The Portuguese legal system is part of the civil law legal system, also called the continental family legal system. The main laws include the Constitution , as amended , the Portuguese Civil Code , as amended and the Penal Code of Portugal , as amended.
Other relevant laws are the Commercial Code , as amended and the Civil Procedure Code , as amended. The Public Ministry , headed by the Attorney General of the Republic, constitutes the independent body of public prosecutors.
Portuguese law applied in the former colonies and territories and continues to be the major influence for those countries.
Portugal was the first country in the world to abolish life imprisonment in and was one of the first countries to abolish the death penalty.
Maximum jail sentences are limited to 25 years. Portugal is also known for having decriminalized the usage of all common drugs in , the first country in the world to do so.
Portugal decriminalized possession of effectively all drugs that are still illegal in other developed nations including cannabis , cocaine , heroin , and LSD.
While possession is legal, trafficking and possession of more than "10 days worth of personal use" are still punishable by jail time and fines.
People caught with small amounts of any drug are given the choice to go to a rehab facility, and may refuse treatment without consequences. Drug use among to year-olds also declined, however the use of marijuana rose only slightly among that age group.
On 31 May , Portugal became the sixth country in Europe and the eighth country in the world to legally recognize same-sex marriage on the national level.
The law came into force on 5 June Administratively, Portugal is divided into municipalities Portuguese: Operationally, the municipality and civil parish, along with the national government, are the only legally identifiable local administrative units identified by the government of Portugal for example, cities, towns or villages have no standing in law, although may be used as catchment for the defining services.
For statistical purposes the Portuguese government also identifies NUTS , inter-municipal communities and informally, the district system, used until European integration and being phased-out by the national government.
Portugal Continental and the autonomous regions of Portugal Azores and Madeira. The 18 districts of mainland Portugal are: It has a friendship alliance and dual citizenship treaty with its former colony, Brazil.
The armed forces have three branches: Navy , Army and Air Force. They serve primarily as a self-defense force whose mission is to protect the territorial integrity of the country and provide humanitarian assistance and security at home and abroad.
As of [update] , the three branches numbered 39, active personnel including 7, women. Portuguese military expenditure in was billion, representing 2.
Military conscription was abolished in The minimum age for voluntary recruitment is 18 years. The Army 21, personnel comprises three brigades and other small units.
In addition to the three branches of the armed forces, there is the National Republican Guard , a security force subject to military law and organization gendarmerie comprising 25, personnel.
This force is under the authority of both the Defense and the Interior Ministry. It has provided detachments for participation in international operations in Iraq and East Timor.
In the 20th century, Portugal engaged in two major conflicts: The Portuguese government is heavily indebted, and received a 78 billion euro bailout from the European Union and the International Monetary Fund in May The Portuguese government also agreed to eliminate its golden share in Portugal Telecom which gave it veto power over vital decisions.
This allowed considerable slippage in state-managed public works and inflated top management and head officer bonuses and wages. Persistent and lasting recruitment policies boosted the number of redundant public servants.
Risky credit , public debt creation, and European structural and cohesion funds were mismanaged across almost four decades.
In the second decade of the 21st century, the Portuguese economy suffered its most severe recession since the s, resulting in the country having to be bailed out by the European Commission, European Central Bank and International Monetary Fund IMF.
In May , the country exited the bailout but reaffirmed its commitment to maintaining its reformist momentum. At the time of exiting the bailout, the economy had contracted by 0.
The Global Competitiveness Report for —, published by the World Economic Forum , placed Portugal on the 36th position on the economic index.
Major state-owned companies include: The International Monetary Fund issued an update report on the economy of Portugal in late-June with a strong near-term outlook and an increase in investments and exports over previous years.
Because of a surplus in , the country was no longer bound by the Excessive Deficit Procedure which had been implemented during an earlier financial crisis.
The banking system was more stable, although there were still non-performing loans and corporate debt. The IMF recommended working on solving these problems for Portugal to be able to attract more private investment.
Agriculture in Portugal is based on small to medium-sized family-owned dispersed units. The country produces a wide variety of crops and livestock products, including: Traditionally a sea-power, Portugal has had a strong tradition in the Portuguese fishing sector and is one of the countries with the highest fish consumption per capita.
The nation is also a notable producer of tin , tungsten and uranium. Although the country has vast iron and coal reserves — mainly in the north — after the revolution and the consequent economic globalization , low competitiveness forced a decrease in the extraction activity for these minerals.
The Panasqueira and Neves-Corvo mines are among the most recognised Portuguese mines that are still in operation.
The largest lithium mine in Europe is operated by Grupo Mota, Felmica, in the Guarda region, which is estimated to have reserves for 30 years of production.
It has 5 more deposits in its possession. The company said the estimated mineral resources at the mine now stood at 14 million tonnes.
Lithium prices have risen in expectation of growing demand for the mineral, which is used in batteries for electric vehicles and for storing electricity from the power grid.
Europe consumes more than 20 per cent of the global supply of battery-grade lithium but currently has to import all its supplies of the mineral.
The so-called reverse circulation drilling program included 15 holes with around 2, metres of total drilling. The objective is to extend resources by integrating the data from drilling results with the expansion expected with the ongoing campaign.
Wine has been one of the most noted Portuguese exports. The country is the seventh largest exporter of the product worldwide, by value. Industry is diversified, ranging from automotive Volkswagen Autoeuropa and Peugeot Citroen , aerospace Embraer and OGMA , electronics and textiles , to food , chemicals , cement and wood pulp.
Modern non-traditional technology-based industries, such as aerospace , biotechnology and information technology , have been developed in several locations across the country.
Following the turn of the 21st century, many major biotechnology and information technology industries have been founded, and are concentrated in the metropolitan areas of Lisbon , Porto , Braga , Coimbra and Aveiro.
The banking and insurance sectors performed well until the lates financial crisis , and this partly reflected a rapid deepening of the market in Portugal.
While sensitive to various types of market and underwriting risks , it has been estimated that overall both the life and non-life sectors will be able to withstand a number of severe shocks, even though the impact on individual insurers varies widely.
Travel and tourism continue to be extremely important for Portugal. It has been necessary for the country to focus upon its niche attractions, such as health, nature and rural tourism, to stay ahead of its competitors.
Portugal is among the top 20 most-visited countries in the world, receiving an average of 20,, foreign tourists each year.
Tourist hotspots in Portugal are: Also, between 5—6 million religious pilgrims visit Fatima each year, where apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary to three shepherd children reportedly took place in The Portuguese government continues to promote and develop new tourist destinations, such as the Douro Valley , the island of Porto Santo , and Alentejo.
The Rooster of Barcelos is bought by thousands of tourists as a souvenir. A number of both national and multinational high-tech and industrial companies, are also responsible for research and development projects.
One of the oldest learned societies of Portugal is the Sciences Academy of Lisbon , founded in Iberian bilateral state-supported research efforts include the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory and the Ibercivis distributed computing platform, which are joint research programmes of both Portugal and Spain.
Portugal is a member of several pan-European scientific organizations. With the emergence and growth of several science parks throughout the world that helped create many thousands of scientific, technological and knowledge-based businesses, Portugal started to develop several  science parks across the country.
Companies locate in the Portuguese science parks to take advantage of a variety of services ranging from financial and legal advice through to marketing and technological support.
The European Innovation Scoreboard , placed Portugal-based innovation in the 15th position, with an impressive increase in innovation expenditure and output.
Again in the s, after joining the European Economic Community , the country built many new motorways. Opened in , the first motorway which linked Lisbon to the National Stadium was an innovative project that made Portugal among one of the first countries in the world to establish a motorway this roadway eventually became the Lisbon-Cascais highway, or A5.
Although a few other tracts were created around and , it was only after the beginning of the s that large-scale motorway construction was implemented.
On many highways, a toll needs to be paid, see Via Verde. Vasco da Gama bridge is the longest bridge in Europe. The primary flag-carrier is TAP Air Portugal , although many other domestic airlines provide services within and without the country.
The government decided to build a new airport outside Lisbon, in Alcochete , to replace Lisbon Portela Airport , though this plan has been suspended due to austerity measures.
One other important airport is the Aeroporto Internacional das Lajes on the island of Terceira in the Azores.
This airport serves as one of two international airports serving countries outside the European Union for all nine islands of the Azores.
It also serves as a military air base for the United States Air Force. The base remains in use to the present day. A national railway system that extends throughout the country and into Spain, is supported and administered by Comboios de Portugal.
The railway network is managed by Infraestruturas de Portugal while the transport of passengers and goods are the responsibility of Comboios de Portugal CP , both public companies.
The two largest metropolitan areas have subway systems: In Porto , a tram network , of which only a tourist line on the shores of the Douro remains, began construction on 12 September a first for the Iberian Peninsula.
All major cities and towns have their own local urban transport network, as well as taxi services. Portugal has considerable resources of wind and river power, the two most cost-effective renewable energy sources.
Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been a trend towards the development of a renewable resource industry and reduction of both consumption and use of fossil fuels.
New programmes combine wind and water: Instead of just delivering electricity, it draws electricity from even the smallest generators, like rooftop solar panels.
The government aggressively encouraged such contributions by setting a premium price for those who buy rooftop-generated solar electricity.
The Statistics Portugal Portuguese: In and according to more up-to-date figures, the population decreased to 10,, A small number of the former Jews may have continued to observe rabbinic Judaism in secret over many generations, in the case of the secret Jews of Belmonte , a small town in the interior; where now people observe the Jewish faith openly.
After the distinction between Old and New Christians was abolished by decree. Another interesting demographic feature relates to the Scandinavian expansion towards the West and strong activity in Northern Portugal where it is believed some coastline communities kept Scandinavian ancestry in Aveiro , Porto and Braga regions.
The most important demographic influence in the modern Portuguese seems to be the oldest one; current interpretation of Y-chromosome and mtDNA data suggests that the Portuguese have their origin in Paleolithic peoples that began arriving to the European continent around 45, years ago.
All subsequent migrations did leave an impact, genetically and culturally, but the main population source of the Portuguese is still Paleolithic.
Genetic studies show Portuguese populations not to be significantly different from other European populations. With a low confidence range there are Scandinavian and East European genetical markers.
Native Portuguese are an Iberian ethnic group, whose ancestry is very similar to Spaniards and have strong ties with fellow Atlantic Arc countries like Ireland, British Isles, France and Belgium due to maritime trade dated as far back as the Bronze Age.
These maritime contacts and the prevalence of R1b haplogroup as the main genetical marker of these countries suggest a common ancestry and cultural proximity.
Other maritime contacts with the Mediterranean specially with Greeks, Romans, Moors, and Phoenicians add particular cultural phenotypes in Southern Portugal and Southern Spain Tartessos culture making both Portugal and Spain a bridge between North Western Europe and the Mediterranean but maintaining the Atlantic character.
The total fertility rate TFR as of [update] was estimated at 1. The structure of Portuguese society is characterized by an increasing inequality which at present places the country in the lowest third of the Social Justice Index for the European Union.
The expansionary budget, backed by a left-wing majority in parliament, also aims to boost the purchasing power of households while cutting the already low deficit even further.
Returning emigrants will be allowed to declare only half their taxable income for five years if they return, provided they lived abroad for at least three years.
Around , residents left Portugal between and in the wake of the global financial crisis. Although some , have since returned, Lisbon wants to tempt the rest to come home - in a similar scheme to the Irish one  - as well as Portugal struggles with the low birth rate and an ageing population.
In , Portugal had 10,, inhabitants of whom about , were legal immigrants. Consequently, it has both influenced and been influenced by cultures from former colonies or dependencies, resulting in immigration from these former territories for both economic and personal reasons.
Portugal, long a country of emigration the vast majority of Brazilians have Portuguese ancestry ,  has now become a country of net immigration,  and not just from the last Indian Portuguese until , African Portuguese until , and Far East Asian Portuguese until overseas territories.
Since the s, along with a boom in construction , several new waves of Ukrainian , Brazilian , Lusophone Africans and other Africans have settled in the country.
Romanian , Moldovans , Kosovar and Chinese have also migrated to the country. In addition, a number of EU citizens , mostly from the United Kingdom, other northern European or Nordic countries, have become permanent residents in the country with the British community being mostly composed of retired pensioners who live in the Algarve and Madeira.
According to the Census, Many Portuguese holidays, festivals and traditions have a Christian origin or connotation. Although relations between the Portuguese state and the Roman Catholic Church were generally amiable and stable since the earliest years of the Portuguese nation, their relative power fluctuated.
In the 13th and 14th centuries , the church enjoyed both riches and power stemming from its role in the reconquest , its close identification with early Portuguese nationalism and the foundation of the Portuguese educational system, including its first university.
The growth of the Portuguese overseas empire made its missionaries important agents of colonization , with important roles in the education and evangelization of people from all the inhabited continents.
The growth of liberal and nascent republican movements during the eras leading to the formation of the First Portuguese Republic —26 changed the role and importance of organized religion.
Portugal is a secular state: Other than the Constitution, the two most important documents relating to religious freedom in Portugal are the Concordata later amended in between Portugal and the Holy See and the Religious Freedom Act.
Portuguese is the official language of Portugal. Portuguese is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia and Northern Portugal , originating from Galician-Portuguese , which was the common language of the Galician and Portuguese people until the formation of Portugal.
There are still many similarities between the Galician culture and the Portuguese culture. Galicia is a consultative observer of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.
The Portuguese language is derived from the Latin spoken by the romanized pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula around years ago — particularly the Celts , Tartessians , Lusitanians and Iberians.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, the language spread worldwide as Portugal established a colonial and commercial empire between and Mirandese is also recognized as a co-official regional language in some municipalities of North-Eastern Portugal.
An estimate of between 6, and 7, Mirandese speakers has been documented for Portugal. The educational system is divided into preschool for those under age 6 , basic education 9 years, in three stages, compulsory , secondary education 3 years, compulsory since , and higher education subdivided in university and polytechnic education.
Universities are usually organized into faculties. Institutes and schools are also common designations for autonomous subdivisions of Portuguese higher education institutions.
The total adult literacy rate is 99 percent. Portuguese primary school enrollments are percent. In addition to being a destination for international students , Portugal is also among the top places of origin for international students.
All higher education students, both domestic and international, totaled , in Portuguese universities have existed since The oldest Portuguese university was first established in Lisbon before moving to Coimbra.
Presently, the largest university in Portugal is the University of Lisbon. The Bologna process has been adopted, since , by Portuguese universities and poly-technical institutes.
Higher education in state-run educational establishments is provided on a competitive basis, a system of numerus clausus is enforced through a national database on student admissions.
However, every higher education institution offers also a number of additional vacant places through other extraordinary admission processes for sportsmen, mature applicants over 23 years old , international students , foreign students from the Lusosphere , degree owners from other institutions, students from other institutions academic transfer , former students readmission , and course change, which are subject to specific standards and regulations set by each institution or course department.
Most student costs are supported with public money. Portugal has entered into cooperation agreements with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and other US institutions to further develop and increase the effectiveness of Portuguese higher education and research.
According to the latest Human Development Report , the average life expectancy in was Portugal ranks 12th in the best public health systems in the world, ahead of high developed countries like the United Kingdom , Germany or Sweden.
The Portuguese health system is characterized by three coexisting systems: The SNS provides universal coverage.
Five regional health administrations are in charge of implementing the national health policy objectives, developing guidelines and protocols and supervising health care delivery.
Decentralization efforts have aimed at shifting financial and management responsibility to the regional level. In practice, however, the autonomy of regional health administrations over budget setting and spending has been limited to primary care.
The SNS is predominantly funded through general taxation. Employer including the state and employee contributions represent the main funding sources of the health subsystems.
In addition, direct payments by the patient and voluntary health insurance premiums account for a large proportion of funding.
Similar to the other Eur-A countries, most Portuguese die from noncommunicable diseases. Cancer is more frequent among children as well as among women younger than 44 years.
Although lung cancer slowly increasing among women and breast cancer decreasing rapidly are scarcer, cancer of the cervix and the prostate are more frequent.
Portugal has the highest mortality rate for diabetes in the Eur-A, with a sharp increase since the s. It is now around 2 deaths per a newborns.
This improvement was mainly due to the decrease in neonatal mortality, from People are usually well informed about their health status, the positive and negative effects of their behaviour on their health and their use of health care services.
Yet their perceptions of their health can differ from what administrative and examination-based data show about levels of illness within populations.
Thus, survey results based on self-reporting at the household level complement other data on health status and the use of services.
Only one third of adults rated their health as good or very good in Portugal Kasmel et al. This is the lowest of the Eur-A countries reporting and reflects the relatively adverse situation of the country in terms of mortality and selected morbidity.
Portugal has developed a specific culture while being influenced by various civilizations that have crossed the Mediterranean and the European continent, or were introduced when it played an active role during the Age of Discovery.
In the s and s decade , Portugal modernized its public cultural facilities, in addition to the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation established in in Lisbon.
Traditional architecture is distinctive and include the Manueline , also known as Portuguese late Gothic a sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century.
A 20th-century interpretation of traditional architecture, Soft Portuguese style , appears extensively in major cities, especially Lisbon.
Portuguese cinema has a long tradition, reaching back to the birth of the medium in the late 19th century.
Portuguese literature, one of the earliest Western literatures, developed through text as well as song. Until , the Portuguese-Galician troubadours spread their literary influence to most of the Iberian Peninsula.
Portuguese cuisine is diverse. The Portuguese consume a lot of dry cod bacalhau in Portuguese , for which there are hundreds of recipes. Two other popular fish recipes are grilled sardines and caldeirada , a potato-based stew that can be made from several types of fish.
A very popular northern dish is the arroz de sarrabulho rice stewed in pigs blood or the arroz de cabidela rice and chickens meat stewed in chickens blood.
The Portuguese art of pastry has its origins in the many medieval Catholic monasteries spread widely across the country.
Portuguese cuisine is very diverse, with different regions having their own traditional dishes. The Portuguese have a culture of good food, and throughout the country there are myriads of good restaurants and typical small tasquinhas.
Portuguese wines have enjoyed international recognition since the times of the Romans, who associated Portugal with their god Bacchus.
Today, the country is known by wine lovers and its wines have won several international prizes. Port and Madeira are particularly appreciated in a wide range of places around the world.
Portuguese music encompasses a wide variety of genres. The traditional one is the Portuguese folk music which has deep roots in local costumes having as instruments bagpipes, drums, flutes, tambourines, accordions and small guitars cavaquinho.
Within Portuguese folk music is the renowned genre of Fado , a melancholic urban music originated in Lisbon in the 19th century, probably inside bohemian environments, usually associated with the Portuguese guitar and saudade , or longing.
Coimbra fado , a unique type of " troubadour serenading" fado, is also noteworthy. In addition to Folk , Fado and Classical music, other genres are present at Portugal like pop and other types of modern music, particularly from North America and the United Kingdom, as well as a wide range of Portuguese, Caribbean, Lusophone African and Brazilian artists and bands.
Out of the summer season, Portugal has a large number of festivals, designed more to an urban audience, like Flowfest or Hip Hop Porto.
Furthermore, one of the largest international Goa trance festivals takes place in central Portugal every two years, the Boom Festival, that is also the only festival in Portugal to win international awards: There is also the student festivals of Queima das Fitas are major events in a number of cities across Portugal.
Furthermore, Portugal won the Eurovision Song Contest in Kiev with the song " Amar pelos dois " presented by Salvador Sobral , and subsequently hosted the contest at the Altice Arena in Lisbon.
Portugal has a rich history in painting. During the renaissance Portuguese painting was highly influenced by north European painting.
The 20th century saw the arrival of Modernism , and along with it came the most prominent Portuguese painters: He was deeply influenced by both Cubist and Futurist trends.
Football is the most popular sport in Portugal. There are several football competitions ranging from local amateur to world-class professional level.
They have won eight titles in the European UEFA club competitions, were present in 21 finals and have been regular contenders in the last stages almost every season.
Other than football, many Portuguese sports clubs, including the "big three", compete in several other sports events with a varying level of success and popularity, these may include roller hockey , basketball , futsal , handball , and volleyball.
The Portuguese national rugby union team qualified for the Rugby World Cup and the Portuguese national rugby sevens team has played in the World Rugby Sevens Series.
In athletics , the Portuguese have won a number of gold, silver and bronze medals in the European, World and Olympic Games competitions.
The country has also achieved notable performances in sports like fencing , judo , kitesurf , rowing , sailing, surfing , shooting, taekwondo , triathlon and windsurf , owning several European and world titles.
The paralympic athletes have also conquered many medals in sports like swimming, boccia , athletics and wrestling.
In motorsport, Portugal is internationally noted for the Rally of Portugal , and the Estoril , Algarve Circuits and the revived Porto Street Circuit which holds a stage of the WTCC every two years, as well as for a number of internationally noted pilots in varied motorsports.
In water sports, Portugal has three major sports: Northern Portugal has its own original martial art , Jogo do Pau , in which the fighters use staffs to confront one or several opponents.
Other popular sport-related recreational outdoor activities with thousands of enthusiasts nationwide include airsoft , fishing, golf , hiking, hunting and orienteering.
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Economy of Portugal and Economic history of Portugal. Top ten wine exporting countries in Rank Country tonnes 1 Italy 1, Science and technology in Portugal.
Solar farms in Madeira top and Alqueva Hydroelectric Dam bottom. Demographics of Portugal and Genetic history of the Iberian Peninsula. Metropolitan areas of Portugal.
Religions in Portugal Census  Roman Catholicism. Languages of Portugal and Portuguese language. Fernando Pessoa , prolific writer in 20th-century Portuguese literature.
Portuguese cuisine and Portuguese wine. Archived from the original on 18 March Retrieved 2 December Retrieved 2 July Retrieved 15 June Retrieved 10 October Retrieved 13 January United Nations Development Programme.
Retrieved 14 September Sofos, Nation and identity in contemporary Europe , p. Retrieved 18 April Archived from the original on 2 February Retrieved 2 August Institute for Economics and Peace.
Retrieved 9 June Constitution of the Portuguese Republic " in Portuguese. Archived from the original on 21 December Retrieved 16 August Archived from the original PDF on 21 September Retrieved 20 August Retrieved 22 February Retrieved 7 December Retrieved 11 April The book of the taking of Ireland".
Retrieved 12 March From Beginnings to Portugal Volume 1 p. The Formation of the Territory ] in Portuguese. Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage".
Retrieved 31 January In Brown, George Williams. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. I — online ed. University of Toronto Press.
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